Use the --sort=-committerdate option of git for-each-ref;

Also available since Git 2.7.0 for git branch:

Basic Usage:

git for-each-ref --sort=-committerdate refs/heads/

# Or using git branch (since version 2.7.0)
git branch --sort=-committerdate  # DESC
git branch --sort=committerdate  # ASC

Result:

Result

Advanced Usage:

git for-each-ref --sort=committerdate refs/heads/ --format='%(HEAD) %(color:yellow)%(refname:short)%(color:reset) - %(color:red)%(objectname:short)%(color:reset) - %(contents:subject) - %(authorname) (%(color:green)%(committerdate:relative)%(color:reset))'

Result:

Result