You can use

git checkout -- file

You can do it without the -- (as suggested by nimrodm), but if the filename looks like a branch or tag (or other revision identifier), it may get confused, so using -- is best.

You can also check out a particular version of a file:

git checkout v1.2.3 -- file         # tag v1.2.3
git checkout stable -- file         # stable branch
git checkout origin/master -- file  # upstream master
git checkout HEAD -- file           # the version from the most recent commit
git checkout HEAD^ -- file          # the version before the most recent commit