Getting the name of the file without the extension:

import os
print(os.path.splitext("/path/to/some/file.txt")[0])

Prints:

/path/to/some/file

Documentation for os.path.splitext.

Important Note: If the filename has multiple dots, only the extension after the last one is removed. For example:

import os
print(os.path.splitext("/path/to/some/file.txt.zip.asc")[0])

Prints:

/path/to/some/file.txt.zip

See other answers below if you need to handle that case.