This is an old question, but for completeness, you can return a Series from the applied function that contains the new data, preventing the need to iterate three times. Passing axis=1 to the apply function applies the function sizes to each row of the dataframe, returning a series to add to a new dataframe. This series, s, contains the new values, as well as the original data.

def sizes(s):
    s['size_kb'] = locale.format("%.1f", s['size'] / 1024.0, grouping=True) + ' KB'
    s['size_mb'] = locale.format("%.1f", s['size'] / 1024.0 ** 2, grouping=True) + ' MB'
    s['size_gb'] = locale.format("%.1f", s['size'] / 1024.0 ** 3, grouping=True) + ' GB'
    return s

df_test = df_test.append(rows_list)
df_test = df_test.apply(sizes, axis=1)