Newer versions: (from 8.4 - mentioned in release notes)

TABLE mytablename;

Longer but works on all versions:

SELECT * FROM mytablename;

You may wish to use \x first if it's a wide table, for readability.

For long data:

SELECT * FROM mytable LIMIT 10;

or similar.

For wide data (big rows), in the psql command line client, it's useful to use \x to show the rows in key/value form instead of tabulated, e.g.

\x
SELECT * FROM mytable LIMIT 10;

Note that in all cases the semicolon at the end is important.