I don't believe there's a way to query the mouse position, but you can use a mousemove handler that just stores the information away, so you can query the stored information.

jQuery(function($) {
    var currentMousePos = { x: -1, y: -1 };
    $(document).mousemove(function(event) {
        currentMousePos.x = event.pageX;
        currentMousePos.y = event.pageY;
    });

    // ELSEWHERE, your code that needs to know the mouse position without an event
    if (currentMousePos.x < 10) {
        // ....
    }
});

But almost all code, other than setTimeout code and such, runs in response to an event, and most events provide the mouse position. So your code that needs to know where the mouse is probably already has access to that information...