The values are sent in the request body, in the format that the content type specifies.

Usually the content type is application/x-www-form-urlencoded, so the request body uses the same format as the query string:

parameter=value&also=another

When you use a file upload in the form, you use the multipart/form-data encoding instead, which has a different format. It's more complicated, but you usually don't need to care what it looks like, so I won't show an example, but it can be good to know that it exists.