You can use pageX and pageY to get the position of the mouse in the window. You can also use jQuery's offset to get the position of an element.

So, it should be pageX - offset.left for how far from the left of the image and pageY - offset.top for how far from the top of the image.

Here is an example:

$(document).ready(function() {
  $('img').click(function(e) {
    var offset = $(this).offset();
    alert(e.pageX - offset.left);
    alert(e.pageY - offset.top);
  });
});

I've made a live example here and here is the source.

To calculate how far from the bottom or right, you would have to use jQuery's width and height methods.