The answer to this question has changed over the years. The current answer is here at the top, followed by the various answers over the years in chronological order:

Current Answer

You can use fs.existsSync():

const fs = require("fs"); // Or `import fs from "fs";` with ESM
if (fs.existsSync(path)) {
    // Do something
}

It was deprecated for several years, but no longer is. From the docs:

Note that fs.exists() is deprecated, but fs.existsSync() is not. (The callback parameter to fs.exists() accepts parameters that are inconsistent with other Node.js callbacks. fs.existsSync() does not use a callback.)

You've specifically asked for a synchronous check, but if you can use an asynchronous check instead (usually best with I/O), use fs.promises.access if you're using async functions or fs.access (since exists is deprecated) if not:

In an async function:

try {
    await fs.promises.access("somefile");
    // The check succeeded
} catch (error) {
    // The check failed
}

Or with a callback:

fs.access("somefile", error => {
    if (!error) {
        // The check succeeded
    } else {
        // The check failed
    }
});

Historical Answers

Here are the historical answers in chronological order:

  • Original answer from 2010
    (stat/statSync or lstat/lstatSync)
  • Update September 2012
    (exists/existsSync)
  • Update February 2015
    (Noting impending deprecation of exists/existsSync, so we're probably back to stat/statSync or lstat/lstatSync)
  • Update December 2015
    (There's also fs.access(path, fs.F_OK, function(){}) / fs.accessSync(path, fs.F_OK), but note that if the file/directory doesn't exist, it's an error; docs for fs.stat recommend using fs.access if you need to check for existence without opening)
  • Update December 2016
    fs.exists() is still deprecated but fs.existsSync() is no longer deprecated. So you can safely use it now.

Original answer from 2010:

You can use statSync or lstatSync (docs link), which give you an fs.Stats object. In general, if a synchronous version of a function is available, it will have the same name as the async version with Sync at the end. So statSync is the synchronous version of stat; lstatSync is the synchronous version of lstat, etc.

lstatSync tells you both whether something exists, and if so, whether it's a file or a directory (or in some file systems, a symbolic link, block device, character device, etc.), e.g. if you need to know if it exists and is a directory:

var fs = require('fs');
try {
    // Query the entry
    stats = fs.lstatSync('/the/path');

    // Is it a directory?
    if (stats.isDirectory()) {
        // Yes it is
    }
}
catch (e) {
    // ...
}

...and similarly, if it's a file, there's isFile; if it's a block device, there's isBlockDevice, etc., etc. Note the try/catch; it throws an error if the entry doesn't exist at all.

~~If you don't care what the entry is and only want to know whether it exists, you can use path.existsSync (or with latest, fs.existsSync) as noted by user618408:~~

var path = require('path');
if (path.existsSync("/the/path")) { // or fs.existsSync
    // ...
}

It doesn't require a try/catch but gives you no information about what the thing is, just that it's there.